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In this lecture Addiction, Depression and Other Mental Illness are explained. Depression (major depressive disorder) is a common and serious medical illness that negatively affects how you feel, the way you think and how you act. Depression causes feelings of sadness and loss of interest in activities once enjoyed. Then educator explained the Emotional, Cognitive and physical sign and symptoms of depression. Differences in certain chemicals in the brain may contribute to symptoms of depression. Depression can run in families. People with low self-esteem, who are easily overwhelmed by stress, or who are generally pessimistic appear to be more likely to experience depression. Continuous exposure to violence, neglect, abuse or poverty may make some people more vulnerable to depression. Then later in this section brain chemistry and effects of stress on body are explained in detail with the help of diagram.
Eating disorders are characterized by obsessive concerns with weight and disruptive eating patterns that negatively impact physical and mental health. Anorexia Nervosa is characterized by restricted food consumption that leads to weight loss and a very low body weight. Effects of Anorexia Nervosa on whole body are well explained using a full body illustration. Bulimia Nervosa/Bulimia is characterized by binge eating followed by purging. Binge eating refers to eating a large amount of food in a short amount of time. Purging refers to the attempts to get rid of the food consumed. This may be done by vomiting or taking laxatives. Then educator explained how bulimia affects your body.
Rumination disorder is marked by regurgitating previously chewed or swallowed food in order to either spit it out or re-swallow it. Affected by this disorder are children or adults who also have a developmental delay or intellectual disability. Additional problems include dental decay, esophageal ulcers, and malnutrition. Pica involves craving and consuming non-food substances such as dirt, paint, or soap. The disorder most commonly affects children and those with developmental disabilities. Binge-Eating Disorder Characterized by frequently eating excessive amounts of food, often when not hungry.
Sleep – Wake Disorders
Sleep disorders involve an interruption in sleep patterns that lead to distress and affects daytime functioning. Then Educator explained the sleep disorder symptoms. In Narcolepsy one experience periods of extreme daytime drowsiness and sudden attacks of sleep. It also causes unexpected and temporary loss of muscle control, known as cataplexy. It causes serious disruption in your daily routine. Then educator explained the types of Narcolepsy. Most people with narcolepsy and cataplexy have a decreased amount of a brain protein called hypocretin(orexin). One of the functions of hypocretin is regulating your Sleep - Wake cycles. Parasomnias involve disorders that feature abnormal behaviours that take place during sleep. Such disorders include sleepwalking, sleep terrors, sleep talking, and sleep eating. Insomnia disorder involves being unable to get enough sleep to feel rested. It causes significant distress or impairment over time. In the end of third section educator explains the effects of sleep deprivation with the help of diagram.
Impulsive Control and Neurocognitive Disorders
Inability to control emotions and behaviours, resulting in harm to oneself or others. Violate the rights of others such as destroying property or involve in physical aggression. Kleptomania Involves an inability to control the impulse to steal. People who have kleptomania will often steal things that they do not really need. Pyromania Involves fascination with fire that results in acts of fire-starting that endanger the self and others. Conduct Disorder is diagnosed in children and adolescents under the age of 18 who regularly violate social norms and the rights of others. Oppositional Defiant Disorder begins prior to the age of 18 and is characterized by defiance, irritability, anger, aggression. Neurocognitive disorders are characterized by acquired deficits in cognitive function. They are mostly developed later in life and affect learning, memory and consciousness.
Delirium is an abrupt change in the brain that causes mental confusion and emotional disruption. It is also known as confusional state. Delirium affects our mind, emotions, muscle control, and sleep patterns. Then later in this section Types of Delirium are explained. Major and mild neurocognitive disorders have the primary feature of acquired cognitive decline in one or more areas including memory, attention, language, learning, and perception. These cognitive disorders can be due to medical conditions including Alzheimer's disease, HIV infection, Parkinson's disease, substance/medication use, vascular disease, and others.
Substance Related and Addictive Disorders
Substance-related disorders are those that involve the use and abuse of different substances such as cocaine, methamphetamine, opiates and alcohol. These disorders may include substance-induced conditions that can result in intoxication, withdrawal, the emergence of psychosis, anxiety and delirium. Alcohol-related disorders involve the consumption of alcohol, the most widely used (and frequently overused) drug in the United States. Then with the help of diagram educator explained how too much alcohol can affect your health.
Cannabis Use Disorder is derived from hemp plant cannabis sativa. The dried leaves and flowering tops are often referred to as ganja and marijuana. The resin of the plant is referred to as hashish. Bhang is a drink made from cannabis. Cannabis is either smoked or taken in liquid form. What Marijuana does to your body and brain is then explained with the help of diagram. Inhalant-use disorder involves inhaling fumes from things such as paints or solvents. Then educator explained with the help of diagram that what cocaine does to your body and brain. Tobacco use disorder is characterized by symptoms such as consuming more tobacco than intended, difficulty cutting back or quitting, cravings, and suffering adverse social consequences as a result of tobacco use. In the end of this section common adverse effects of Tobacco smoking are explained.