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Gram Positive Cocci
This Sqadia video is the elucidation of Bacteria of Minor Medical Importance. Abiotrophia species were formerly known as nutritionally deficient streptococci. They are members of the normal flora of the mouth and can cause subacute bacterial endocarditis. Micrococci are gram-positive cocci that are part of the normal flora of the skin. They are rare human pathogens. Peptococci are anaerobic gram-positive cocci, resembling staphylococci, found as members of the normal flora of the mouth and colon. Peptostreptococci are anaerobic gram-positive cocci found as members of the normal flora of the mouth and colon. They are also isolated from abscesses of various organs, usually from mixed anaerobic infections. Sarcina species are anaerobic gram-positive cocci grouped in clusters of four or eight. They are minor members of the normal flora of the colon and are rarely pathogens. In August 2005, it was reported that S. suis caused the death of 37 farmers in China. The illness is characterized by the sudden onset of hemorrhagic shock.
Gram Positive Rods
Arachnia species are anaerobic gram-positive rods that form long, branching filaments similar to those of Actinomyces. They are found primarily in the mouth and in the tonsillar crypts. Arcanobacterium haemolyticum is a club-shaped gram-positive rod that closely resembles corynebacteria. It is a rare cause of pharyngitis and chronic skin ulcers. Bifidobacterium eriksonii is a filamentous, anaerobic rod found as part of the normal flora in the mouth and gastrointestinal tract. Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae causes erysipeloid, a skin infection that resembles erysipelas. Erysipeloid usually occurs on the hands of persons who handle meat and fish. Eubacterium species are anaerobic, non–spore-forming rods that are present in large numbers as part of the normal flora of the human colon. Gardnerella vaginalis is a facultative gram-variable rod associated with bacterial vaginosis, characterized by a malodorous vaginal discharge and clue cells, which are vaginal epithelial cells covered with bacteria. Mobiluncus an anaerobic rod, is often found in this disease as well. Lactobacilli are non–spore-forming rods found as members of the normal flora in the mouth, colon, and female genital tract. In the mouth, they may play a role in the production of dental caries. Mobiluncus species are curved rods that often stain gram variable. Propionibacteria are pleomorphic, anaerobic gram-positive rods. They are found in the skin and in the gastrointestinal tract. P. acnes is also involved in the pathogenesis of acne, a condition that affects more than 85% of teenagers. Antibiotics, such as erythromycin, administered either topically or orally. Rhodococcus equi is a gram-positive bacterium whose shape varies from a coccus to a club-shaped rod. It may appear acid-fast and, if so, can be confused with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Gram Negative Cocci, Rickettsia, Unclassified
Veillonella parvula is an anaerobic gram-negative diplococcus that is part of the normal flora of the mouth, colon, and vagina. Anaplasma phagocytophilum is a member of the Rickettsia family that causes human granulocytic anaplasmosis (HGA). Its diagnosis is made serologically by detecting a rise in antibody titer. Doxycycline is the treatment of choice. Ehrlichia chaffeensis causes human monocytic ehrlichiosis (HME). This disease resembles Rocky Mountain spotted fever. Wolbachia species are Rickettsia-like bacteria found intracellularly within filarial nematodes such as Wuchereria and Onchocerca. Tropheryma whipplei is the cause of Whipple’s disease, a rare disease characterized by prolonged weight loss, diarrhea, and polyarthritis. Without antibiotic treatment, it is ultimately fatal. The reservoir of the organism, its mode of transmission, and pathogenesis are unknown. Laboratory diagnosis is typically made by periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) staining of biopsy specimens. The drug of choice is trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole.
Gram Negative Rods - I
Achromobacter species are gram-negative coccobacillary rods. They are found chiefly in water supplies. Acinetobacter species are coccobacillary rods found commonly in soil and water, but they can be part of the normal flora. Actinobacillus species are rare opportunistic pathogen, causing endocarditis on damaged heart valves and sepsis. Aeromonas species are gram-negative rods found in water, soil, food, and animal and human feces. Alcaligenes species are associated with water-containing materials such as respirators in hospitals. Arizona species are gram-negative rods in the family Enterobacteriaceae; they ferment lactose slowly. Bartonella quintana is the cause of trench fever. B. bacilliformis causes two rare diseases: Oroya fever and verruga peruana, both of which are stages of Carrión’s disease. Bradyrhizobium species are common soil bacteria that fix nitrogen in leguminous plants. B enterica is the first member of the genus to be identified as a human opportunistic infection. Calymmatobacterium granulomatis causes granuloma inguinale. Capnocytophaga gingivalis is a gram-negative fusiform rod that is associated with periodontal disease. Cardiobacterium hominis is a gram-negative pleomorphic rod. Chromobacterium violaceum produces a violet pigment. Chryseobacterium species, Citrobacter species, Corynebacterium jeikeium, and Corynebacterium minutissimum also comes under the category of gram negative rods.
Gram Negative Rods - II
Edwardsiella species are gram-negative rods resembling Salmonella. Eikenella corrodens is a member of the normal flora in the human mouth. Erwinia species is found in soil and water and are rarely involved in human disease. Fusobacterium species are anaerobic gram-negative rods with pointed ends. HACEK Group is a group of small gram-negative rods that have some common features. Haemophilus aegyptius is an important cause of conjunctivitis in children. Haemophilus Ducreyi causes the sexually transmitted disease chancroid. Hafnia species are gram-negative rods. They are found in soil and water and are rare opportunistic pathogens. Kingella is a rare cause of opportunistic infection and endocarditis. Moraxella causes otitis media and sinusitis, primarily in children, as well as bronchitis and pneumonia in older people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Plesiomonas causes self-limited gastroenteritis. Porphyromonas gingivalis and Porphyromonas endodontalis are anaerobic gram-negative rods found in the mouth. Pseudomonas Pseudomallei, Spirillum, Yersinia Enterocolitica and Yersinia Pseudotuberculosis are characterized as gram negative rods.