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If you are looking for an extensive explanation on clinical microbiology and immunology, then you have come to the right place. In this medical lecture, biosafety guidance and various techniques for microbial identification have been expounded comprehensively. In addition to that, clinical immunology alongside some of the several techniques have also been elaborated. These include ELISA, radio assays, immunoblotting, immunodiffusion and many more.
The medical lecture firstly focusses on clinical microbiology. In the beginning, the educator has put forward an overview of clinical microbiology lab. Patient specimen can be tested for suspected infectious agents via tests like immunoassays, microscopy, molecular and biochemical testing. Biosafety guidance including pathogen risk, local risk and biosecurity risk assessment has been explained. Additionally, microbiological risk group identification and four biosafety levels have also been highlighted.
Identification of Microorganisms
Identification of microorganisms has been deliberated expansively in the second section. Sterile or non-sterile specimen collection in addition to the direct identification methods have been elaborated. Culture can be done on any media viz selective or differential media. On the other hand, a range of biochemical tests like catalase, oxidase and urease tests have been shed light upon. Moreover, dichotomous key for both gram negative and positive bacteria along with fungal recognition has also been explained in detail.
The major emphasis of this section is on the identification techniques. In the beginning, microscopy, either darkfield or fluorescence, has been comprehensively delineated. In addition to that, a range of molecular methods, like nucleic acid base hybridization, DNA fingerprinting and rt-PCR amplification, have been discussed. DNA hybridization and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) alongside, ribotyping and multi-locus sequence typing have been highlighted. Towards the end, other techniques like genomic and plasmid fingerprinting along with indirect microbial identification have been deliberated.
Clinical immunology has been elucidated thoroughly in this section. Immunoblotting and agglutination are primarily conversed about. Viral agglutination is quite common. Furthermore, complement fixation and both indirect and sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) have also been expansively illustrated.
Techniques in Clinical Immunology
Techniques commonly employed in clinical immunology are discussed here. Firstly, immunoblotting (Western blotting) involving antigen identification via immunostaining and autoradiography has been described. On the other hand, immunoprecipitation and immunodiffusion have been explained in detail. The latter can be either single radial or double diffusion in agar. Immunoelectrophoresis and flow cytometry also serve the purpose. In addition to that, radioimmunoassay has been elaborated.