In this video lecture, educator describes energy balance as a state in which caloric intake equals the energy consumed. Daily energy requirements involve different percentages of food intake. When the amount of energy in is equal to amount of energy out, a state of weight balance occurs.
Energy balance equation involves three states; neutral, negative and positive energy balance. Average daily protein requirement is 30-50g,20-30g degraded every day. Utilization of nutrients can be determined by many methods. Regulation of feeding is very important for proper working of organs and tissues.
Educator explains the difference between hunger, apatite, fullness and satiety. Hypothalamus contains hunger and satiety centres. Hypothalamic neurons play major roles in regulation. Hormones and neurotransmitters influence hypothalamus. Short and intermediate term regulation of food intake is maintained by cholecystokinin. Long term regulation of food intake is done by leptin.
Obesity is defined as a high body mass index (BMI) with a large amount of adiposity and has many causes and complications. Inanition and cachexia are states of prolonged undernutrition and malnutrition respectively.
When food intake is chronically insufficient to meet metabolic needs of the body, the state is called starvation. Different metabolic changes occur in the state of starvation.
Organic compounds required in trace amounts to perform specific body functions are called vitamins. Human body requires different amounts of each vitamin in daily food. These vitamins have multiple functions and deficiencies of these vitamins can cause serious diseases.
Solid inorganic substance of natural occurrence is termed as mineral and can be classified into two major categories. Different minerals have different benefits and food sources.