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This Sqadia video is the elucidation of Nervous System. Neural Tube Defects are Group of disorders characterized by failure of closure of the neural tube. Characteristically associated with α-feto (alpha-feto) protein in amniotic fluid or maternal serum. TORCH stands for Toxoplasma, Rubella, Cytomegalovirus and Herpes Simplex virus. It is a group of infections transmitted from the mother to fetus with similar clinical manifestations. It is characterized by microcephaly and focal cerebral calcification. In Hydrocephalus, there is Increased volume of CSF within cranial cavity. In infants it is associated with enlargement of skull. It is often caused by obstruction to CSF circulation. Arnold Chiari Malformation are structural defects in the cerebellum i.e downward displacement of cerebellar tonsils and medulla through foramen magnum. It results in pressure atrophy of displaced brain tissue. Agenesis of the corpus callosum (ACC) is a rare birth defect in which there is a complete or partial absence of the corpus callosum. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome causes facial abnormalities and developmental defects such as Microcephaly, Atrial Septal Defect, Mental and Growth Retardation, and Other Abnormalities.
Cerebrovascular Disease and Head Injuries
Cerebrovascular Disease are most common group of CNS disorders. It is the 3rd major cause of death in US after heart disease and cancer. Infarction is characterized by liquefactive necrosis leading to cyst formation. It is caused by arterial occlusion from Thrombosis and Embolism. Thrombosis is most often caused by atherosclerosis. Embolism is less common than thrombosis. Lacunar Stroke is the obstruction of small vessels. Pure motor lacunar stroke most often results from lesions affecting the internal capsule. Hemorrhage is of two types: Intracerebral hemorrhage and Subarachnoid hemorrhage. Intracerebral hemorrhage consists of bleeding into the brain substance. Most frequently caused by hypertension, often complicated by minute dilations at small artery bifurcations – Charcot Bouchard Aneurysms. Subarachnoid Hemorrhage consists of bleeding into the subarachnoid space. It is associated with berry aneurysm of Circle of Willis. Transient Ischemic Attacks are brief episodes of impaired neurological function caused by temporary impairment of cerebral circulation and are not associated with serious damage. Head Injuries results from penetrating wounds, which in addition to brain damage can predispose to infection. It can also result from non-penetrating injuries, such as coup and contre-coup injuries. Head Injuries include, Epidural Hematoma and Subdural Hematoma.
Demyelinating and Ocular Diseases
Demyelinating Disease is the Destruction of myelin with relative preservation of axons. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a demyelinating disease in which the insulating covers of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord are damaged. It is a multifactorial in origin, with both genetic and environmental factors playing a role. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is a rare autoimmune disease marked by a sudden, widespread attack of inflammation in the brain and spinal cord. Guillain Barre Syndrome is an acute inflammatory demyelinating disease primarily involving peripheral nerves. Highest incidence in young adults. Conjunctivitis is the inflammation or swelling of the conjunctiva. Retinopathy of prematurity also called retrolental fibroplasia (RLF) and Terry syndrome, is a disease of the eye affecting prematurely born babies generally having received intensive neonatal care. Diabetic Neuropathy is of two types Non-Proliferative and Proliferative. Retinitis Pigmentosa is a rare, genetic disorders that involve a breakdown and loss of cells in the retina. Senile Macular Degeneration is age related and, in this disorder, there is blurred or no vision in the center of the visual field. Glaucoma is the leading cause of irreversible blindness in the world. Retinoblastoma is a rare form of cancer that rapidly develops from the immature cells of a retina.
Alzheimer Disease is the most common cause of dementia. Etiology Alzheimer Disease is unknown but may be due to Abnormal Amyloid gene expression which is most favoured Etiology. Neurofibrillary tangles, Neuritic plaques, and Hirano bodies are some of the morphologic abnormalities of Alzheimer Disease. Pick disease clinically resembles Alzheimer Disease. Its clinical syndrome is associated with shrinking of the frontal and temporal anterior lobes of the brain. Huntington disease is a progressive brain disorder that causes uncontrolled movements, emotional problems, and loss of thinking ability. Most commonly in 30s or 40s. Before 20, the condition is called Juvenile Huntington's disease. Idiopathic Parkinson’s Disease is a long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system. It appears clinically mostly after age 50 and its Etiology is unknown. Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is a motor neuron disease. It is characterized by regeneration of upper and lower motor neuron and results in denervation atrophy of the musculature.
Infections and Tumours
Pyogenic Meningitis is a bacterial meningitis. Life-threatening CNS infectious disease affecting the meninges, with an elevated mortality and disability rates. Three bacteria i.e. Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, and Neisseria meningitides account for the majority of cases. Brain abscess or cerebral abscess is an abscess caused by inflammation and collection of infected material. Tuberculous meningitis is Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection of the meninges. Fungal Infection is caused most often by Cryptococcus Neoformans, Coccidioides Immitis, Aspergillus, or Histoplasma. Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii. In neonates it is transmitted from mothers, in new born results in hydrocephalus, and in adult’s manifests as lymphadenitis. Viral meningitis, also known as aseptic meningitis, is caused by variety of viral agents. Meningoencephalitis and Encephalitis is characterized by perivascular cuffing, inclusion bodies in neurons or glial cells and glial nodules. Poliomyelitis, often called polio or infantile paralysis, is an infectious disease caused by the poliovirus. Glioblastoma multiforme is highly malignant and most common primary intracranial neoplasm. Meningioma is a benign tumor. Medulloblastoma is highly malignant and occurs frequently in cerebellum. Neoblastoma is linked to marked amplification of N-myc oncogene. Retinoblastoma is linked to Rb gene deletion or inactivation. Metastatic tumors are more common than primary CNS tumors.