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Cell specialization is determined by the specific array of genes. Genes that codes for the synthesis of a polypeptide are called structural genes. Regulatory genes serve as binding sites for transcription factors and polymerases. In eukaryotes, each structural gene has its own individual regulatory gene control system. Transcription factors regulate the binding of the transcription complex to the core promoter.
Cellular differentiation is essentially the process by which cells become different. When an activated membrane receptor initiates a response pathway inside the cell, the process is called signal transduction. Homeotic genes code for proteins that act as DNA transcription factors. Embryonic development essentially refers to the time of organ formation.