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In this lecture ´´Pregnancy and Lactation´´ is explained. Section one is about ´´Fertilization´´. At first, educator defines fertilization. After that process of fertilization is discussed. Then fertilization details are pursued. Subsequently, information is given on determining sex of the fetus. Likewise, transport of fertilized ovum in fallopian tube is highlighted. Lastly, educator talk about implantation of blastocyst into uterus.
Section two is about ‘’Placenta’’. Educator started this section by telling about the early nutrition of embryo. After that placenta is discussed. This is followed by functions of placenta. Then developmental anatomy of placenta is illustrated. Moreover, placental circulation is explained. Furthermore, educator explains the process of diffusion. Then diffusion in placenta is discussed. The discussion continues on placental permeability. Later on, haemoglobin of fetus is pursued. Additionally, Diffusion of Oxygen Through Placenta is elaborated. Moving onward, Bohr effect is elucidated. Subsequently, diffusion of nutrients is exhibited. Educator's next focus is diffusion of CO2 through placental membrane. Finally, information about diffusion of waste through placental membrane is conveyed.
Section three is about ‘’Hormonal Effect’’. In the beginning of this section educator focuses hormonal factors in pregnancy. After that functions of human chorionic gonadotrophin are reported. Role of estrogens is the next subject of discussion. Subsequently, function of estrogens are reported. Then progesterone is discussed. Furthermore, human chorionic somatomammotropin is explained. Moreover, other hormonal factors come under consideration. In the end, response of mother’s body to pregnancy is discussed.
Section four is about ‘’Parturition’’. Initially, blood flow and cardiac output during pregnancy is elucidated. After that blood volume during pregnancy is focused. Then maternal respiration during pregnancy comes under consideration. This is followed by explanation of maternal urinary system during pregnancy. Educator then focuses on amniotic fluid. Later on, preeclampsia is explained along with causes of preeclampsia. Furthermore, eclampsia is discussed. Afterwards, parturition is elaborated. Moreover, hormonal factors are highlighted. This is followed by effect of oxytocin. Subsequently, effect of fetal hormones are pursued. Moving onward, mechanical factors increasing uterine contractility are focused. Then onset of labour is discussed. Educator gives information about labour pains. After that explanation is given on positive feedback theory of labour. Likewise, mechanism of parturition is exhibited. Next is the elucidation of stages of labour i.e. First Stage of Labour, Second Stage of Labour, and Third Stage of Labour. All the stages are thoroughly explained. In the end, involution of uterus after parturition is pursued.
Section five is about ‘’Lactation’’. Educator’s prime focus in this section is lactation. After that growth of ductal system is discussed. Following this, development of lobule alveolar system is explained. Then initiation of lactation is elaborated. Next, the hormones involved in lactation are focused. Moreover, educator tells that milk production decreases gradually. Subsequently, factors affecting breast milk quality are reported. Afterwards, ejection or let down of milk is elucidated. Feedback inhibitor of lactation is the next subject of discussion. Lastly, composition of natural milk is highlighted.