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This sqadia.com medical video lecture extensively elaborates radioisotopes in medicine. In this lecture Zain Arfeen explains how isotopes differ from radioisotopes, what is the difference between Isobars and Isotopes, and how radioactivity is measured. Radiation hazards leading to bone marrow syndrome, gastrointestinal tract syndrome, and in utero radiation exposure also comes under debate. Moreover, uses of radioisotopes and dynamic function tests are also pursued.
Initially, the phenomenon of radioactivity is elaborated. Diagrammatic representation of radioactivity is also given. Then comparative elaboration of isotopes vs radioisotopes is reported. This is followed by isobars vs isotopes. After that Zain Arfeen talks about the measurement of radioactivity. This section of the medical video lecture also explains that radioisotopes used in medicine and biology emit beta particles.
Exposure to radioactivity is hazardous. Immediate effects of radiation are obvious only at very high doses of exposure. Whole body exposure of 200-1000 rads leads to bone marrow syndrome. Gastrointestinal tract syndrome results from exposure of 1000 to 5000 rads. Delayed effects of radiation are also enlightened. In utero radiation exposure leads to three types of damages. Genetic effects of radiation, radiation safety and protection is also illuminated in this section.
Uses of Radioisotopes
Multiple diagnostic approaches are presented. Auto-radiography is essentially the research procedure. Dilution studies are discussed afterwards. Tests involving dilution principle are plasma volume, RBC volume, total body water, ECF volume, and total exchangeable Na and Na space. Zain Arfeen elaborates through pictorial representation the principle of estimating GI protein loss in enteropathy.
Dynamic Function Tests
For measurement of GI blood loss, precaution is there should be no contamination with patient’s urine. The procedure of radioactive iodine uptake (RAIU) tests is that an iodine tablet is administered orally, and iodine is collected in thyroid which is then detected with gamma probe. Radioactive iron studies are carried out with the help of Fe59. Along with this explanation of interpretation is also given.