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The lecture Renal Diseases - II is the continuation of Renal Diseases – I in which cystic kidney disease, congenital anomalies of kidney, glomerulonephritis, and IgA vasculitis were the topics of discussion. Now, in this sqadia.com medical V-learning lecture, Dr. Mahwish Dildar aims to elaborate renovascular hypertension, acute and chronic kidney injury, haemolytic uremic syndrome, and congenital nephrotic syndrome along with their aetiology, diagnosis and treatment aspect.
Renovascular hypertension can be due to fibromuscular dysplasia. Then certain etiological factors are explained such as renal causes, drugs, neurologic causes. History, BP readings, and fundoscopic examination are some basic considerations to keep in mind. Symptoms include headache, lethargy, cardiac failure. Investigation and management approach is also elaborated along with hypertensive crisis.
Acute Kidney Injury
Dr. Mahwish Dildar explains acute kidney injury as a sudden decline in glomerular filtration rate (GFR) with urine output less than 0.5 ml/kg/h. Aetiology and pathogenesis of pre-renal, renal, and post-renal obstruction are pursued later on. Signs of collapse, uremia, and fluid overload are the clinical features of acute kidney injury. Information about fluid therapy is also given.
Chronic Kidney Injury
In this section, the educator highlights the factors aggravating pre-existing renal failure. Stages, causes, pathogenesis, and clinical features are pursued comprehensively. Treatment of end-stage renal disease is discussed which is the renal transplantation. Peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis are the types of dialysis discussed here along with indications for dialysis.
Haemolytic uremic syndrome is the commonest causes of AKI in childhood. Calcineurin inhibitors, antiplatelet agents are the aeiological factors. Renal Fanconi Syndrome is a rare disorder of kidney tubule function that results in excess amounts of glucose, bicarbonate, phosphates. Moreover, their causes, diagnosis, and treatment modality are also deliberated in this section.
Nephrotic syndrome is the combination of nephrotic-range proteinuria with a low serum albumin level and edema. It is the commonest chronic glomerular disease in children. The medical practitioner also talks about the disease pathology in detail. In congenital nephrotic syndrome, alpha-fetoprotein level is increased in amniotic fluid and maternal blood.