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In this lecture ´´Schizophrenia´´ is explained. Section one is about ´´Introduction´´ in which explanation about schizophrenia is conveyed that it is a chronic and severe mental disorder that affects how a person thinks, feels, and behaves. Moreover, in the next few slides signs and symptoms are explained. Also, the major symptoms that cause schizophrenia is covered. Symptoms are positive, negative and cognitive symptoms followed by hallucinations, and delusions. In the end of this section educator tells about the schizophrenia diagnosis criteria. Patients must meet the criteria outlined in the DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders).
Section two is about ´´Causes´´. Educator describes the causes of schizophrenia. It may be genetic factor, environmental factor, or neurochemical factor that causes schizophrenia. In the next slide the concept that people with schizophrenia have abnormally enlarge ventricles in the brain is delivered. After that the effect of glutamate is highlighted. By coming towards the end, dopamine hypothesis is explained. In the last slide drug induced schizophrenia is conveyed.
Section three is about ´´Types´´. Types of schizophrenia are explained here. Types that are explained in detail are Paranoid Schizophrenia, Disorganized Schizophrenia, Catatonic Schizophrenia, Undifferentiated Schizophrenia, and Residual Schizophrenia. Moving onward in this section, educator tells about schizophrenic symptoms.
Brain Areas Affected by Schizophrenia
Section four is about ´´Brain Areas Affected by Schizophrenia´´. Initially, significant loss of brain gray matter is discussed in which Individuals with schizophrenia have a reduced volume of gray matter in the brain, especially in the temporal and frontal lobes. Then educator notify about the enlarged ventricles in schizophrenic people. In the next slide Decreased prefrontal brain function is explained. After that discussion about other brain areas i.e. limbic system, basal ganglia, and hippocampus proceeds. Next few slides focus on Schizophrenia Diagnosis and Tests and Psychological Evaluation.
Section five is about ´´Treatment´´. There is no cure for schizophrenia, but it can be treated and managed in several ways. Educator tells that typically, a health care provider will prescribe antipsychotic medication to relieve symptoms of psychosis, such as delusions and hallucinations. Antipsychotic drugs are of first generation and second generation. First generation antipsychotics are typical and second-generation antipsychotics are atypical. Psychotherapy an effective treatment for some people. Psychotherapy includes Supportive psychotherapy and cognitive enhancement therapy. Moreover, schizophrenia can be treated through psychosocial treatments, assertive community treatment (act), and complementary health approaches. Additional concerns are physical health and substance abuse.