Thyroid Gland

Pathology

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Thyroid Gland
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Thyroid Function
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Congenital Anomalies and Goiter
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Hypothyroidism
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Hyperthyroidism
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Thyroid Cancers

Lecture´s Description

Dr. Ammar Hassan expansively touches all aspects of thyroid gland at sqadia.com. Starting off with thyroid function, hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism also comes under debate. The congenital anomalies of thyroid and goiter are also discussed. Lastly, thyroid cancers are pursued.

Thyroid Function

Thyroid gland is a butterfly shaped organ located in the neck, secreting hormones that control metabolism. Oxidation of inorganic iodide (I-) to organic iodide (I2) is the function of the thyroid. Then with the help of diagram Dr. Ammar Hassan explained in detail the release of thyroid hormones. The control of thyroid functions is accomplished through hypothalamus and pituitary gland. This section also gives information about thyroid stimulating immunoglobulin which is produced by patients of Graves disease.

Congenital Anomalies and Goiter

Description of congenital anomalies given by Dr. Ammar Hassan include thyroid agenesis, ectopic thyroid, lateral aberrant thyroid, heterotopic thyroid tissue, and thyroglossal duct cyst. Nontoxic Goiter is not associated with hyperthyroidism while its common cause is the iodine deficiency. In areas where the iodine content is low in water and soil/food, the goiter is said to be endemic i.e. endemic goiter. Sporadic goiter and multinodular goiter are also discussed in this section.

Hypothyroidism

Beginning with this section Dr. Ammar Hassan explains that hypothyroidism is a condition in which secretion and action of thyroid hormone is deficit. Clinical signs and symptoms include cold intolerance, peripheral edema, dyspnea, infertility, nerve entrapment syndrome, yellow skin. Primary hypothyroidism occurs when there is impaired synthesis of T4 and T3. Secondary hypothyroidism is caused by deficiency in TSH and TRH.  Other forms of hypothyroidism include subclinical hypothyroidism, congenital hypothyroidism, autoimmune hypothyroidism, and viral or bacterial thyroiditis.

Hyperthyroidism

In addition to hypothyroidism, another clinically important condition is hyperthyroidism. In this condition, thyroid gland is overly activated. Primary hyperthyroidism results due to a defect in the thyroid gland itself. It can be treated by decreasing thyroid hormone production. The most common cause of hyperthyroidism is graves disease along with toxic multinodular goiter and thyroiditis. Dr. Ammar Hassan explained in detail the Graves Disease. Other anomalies involve Hashimoto thyroiditis along with iodine induced hyperthyroidism and nonthyroidal illness.

Thyroid Cancers

Papillary thyroid cancer is the most common type of thyroid cancer and accounts for 85% of all thyroid cancers. Pathologically, it contains calcific lesion known as psammoma bodies. The medical pathologist at sqadia.com tells that papillary thyroid cancer can be treated through a technique called total thyroidectomy. Follicular carcinoma of thyroid is the second most common cancer of thyroid and arises in multinodular goiter. Clinically, it can be presented as metastasis in flat bones, bony swelling or pathological fractures.

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