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Water and its Properties
In this lecture the educator explains the Water pH and Ionic equilibrium. and in the first section of the lecture educator explains the Water and its Properties. Water is the compound of Hydrogen and Oxygen. Water is Extremely essential constituent of all forms of life and is most abundant component. Water cover more than 71% of total earth surface.
Properties of Water includes Physical properties and Chemical properties. Physical properties of water are that water is colourless, odourless, liquid composition, melting point of water is 0°c, and its boiling point is 100°c, water is conductor of heat and electricity and density is 1g/cm³.
Chemical Properties of Water includes High heat Capacity, High heat of vaporization, Molecular Mass = 18.01528 g/mol, Polar in nature, Polar Covalent bond, angle = 104.5°, Cohesion, Adhesion, and Hardness of water.
Role of Water in Environment
In the second section of lecture educator explains the Role of Water in Environment. Water Plays an important role in Agriculture, Industry, livings and buildings. The distribution of Water on earth is uneven. 71% of the earth is covered with water and 29% is land. Fresh water is only 3% of the total water on earth, Out of which: 69% is in glaciers, 30% is underground, 1% is in rivers, lakes and other fresh water bodies. The rest of the 97% is in oceans.
Then educator explains the water cycle in detail. Conservation of Water includes Reduction in loss of water, Maintaining the quality of water, establishing water management practices, Rain water harvesting (Lakes, ponds, canals), Expanding water reservoirs and Growing water efficient crops
Water in Body
In the third section of this lecture, educator explains the Water in Human body, its role, importance and functions. Within body water is present either Intracellular (Protoplasm) and Extracellular (Interstitial, Blood plasma, Lymph and Transcellular).
Functions of water in Body: Water is Medium for reactions within the body, Lubricates skin and tissues, Composes 75% of brain, Maintains the consistency and tonicity of blood, Homeostasis, Helps in digestion, Eliminates toxins and body wastes. Shock resistance for bones, joints, muscles and cavities. Gain of Water is Consumption by Drinking and from food or fat dissolution. Body requirement is 8 Glasses of water per day to keep the body hydrated. Symptoms of dehydration are Increased thirst, Dry mouth, Swollen tongue, Weakness, Dizziness, Heart palpitations, Confusions, Sluggishness and Fainting.
In the fourth section of this lecture educator explains the pH. pH is the potential of hydrogen.
pH is a scale of acidity from 0 to 14. It tells how acidic or alkaline a substance is. More acidic solutions have lower pH. More alkaline solutions have higher pH. pH is a measure of the concentration of protons (H+) in a solution. S.P.L. Sørensen introduced this concept in the year 1909. The p stands for the German potenz, meaning power or concentration, and the H for the hydrogen ion (H+).
The pH of pure water is 7. In general, water with a pH lower than 7 is considered acidic, and with a pH greater than 7 is considered basic. The normal range for pH in surface water systems is 6.5 to 8.5, and the pH range for groundwater systems is between 6 to 8.5. Then in the end of this section, educator explains the Role and importance of pH.
Buffers and Ionic Equilibrium
In the last section of this lecture, educator explains the Buffers and Ionic Equilibrium. Acid-Base Regulation is important for Homeostasis and Enzymatic function. Three Lines of defence that regulate acid-base homeostasis are Buffer system, Respiratory regulation and Renal regulation.
A solution that resists any change in pH by the addition of an acid or a base is called Buffer. The three major buffer systems of our body are carbonic acid bicarbonate buffer system, phosphate buffer system and protein buffer system. The effects of variations in blood chemistry on ventilation are mediated via respiratory chemoreceptors—the carotid and aortic bodies and collections of cells in the medulla and elsewhere that are sensitive to changes in the chemistry of the blood. They initiate impulses that stimulate the respiratory center.
An equilibrium where the rate of dissociation of non-ionized molecules is equal to the rate of combination of the ions. In the solution of a weak electrolyte, the partially dissociated ions when become equal to the molecules in the solution the equilibrium is maintained unless any addition disturbs.