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Keeping in mind the global need of medical knowledge, sqadia.com follows medical books that are accepted throughout the entire world, so that every medical student can get advantage of the medical lectures made by sqadia.com. The lecture acute and chronic inflammations of larynx is also designed by following the instructions of the book of ENT i.e. ¨Diseases of Ear Nose and Throat¨. This lecture is well explained by Saima Mushtaq by first discussing the medical definitions of the diseases of larynx such as acute and chronic laryngitis, acute epiglottitis, laryngeal oedema, pachydermia laryngis, and lupus of larynx. Alongside, clinical features, treatment aspect, diagnosis, and complications are highlighted.
The medical lecture acute and chronic inflammations of larynx firstly focus on acute infections of larynx. Acute laryngitis may be infectious or non-infectious. The infectious type of acute laryngitis is more common and usually follows upper respiratory infection. The non-infectious type of acute laryngitis is due to vocal abuse, allergy, thermal or chemical burns to larynx. Clinically, laryngeal appearances vary with severity. Treatment of acute laryngitis follows vocal rest, avoidance of smoking or alcohol, cough sedatives. Acute membranous laryngitis is similar to acute membranous tonsillitis and is caused by pyogenic nonspecific organisms. Acute epiglottitis is an acute inflammatory condition confined to supraglottic structures, i.e. epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds and arytenoids. Treatment of acute epiglottitis is to take antibiotics and steroids; adequate hydration is required. Acute laryngo-tracheo-bronchitis is an inflammatory condition of the larynx, trachea and bronchi; more common than acute epiglottitis.
Laryngeal Diphtheria and Oedema
The medical aspect of laryngeal diphtheria and oedema is also discussed in this medical lecture. Laryngeal diphtheria affects children below 10 years of age. Effects of laryngeal diphtheria are due to formation of a tough pseudo-membrane and exotoxin liberated by bacteria. Clinical features of laryngeal diphtheria are sore throat and malaise, cervical lymphadenopathy, croupy cough. Diagnosis of laryngeal diphtheria is confirmed by smear and culture of Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Treatment include the use of diphtheria antitoxin, maintenance of airway, tracheostomy. For the better understanding of MBBS students, medical specialist at sqadia.com aims to explain laryngeal oedema with the help of medical definition. Laryngeal oedema results from allergic reaction and cause airway obstruction unless treated. Symptoms and signs of laryngeal oedema are airway obstruction, indirect laryngoscopy. For treatment of laryngeal oedema, tracheostomy will be immediately required.
For the better understanding of medical students, in depth elaboration is given on chronic laryngitis. Chronic laryngitis without hyperplasia is a diffuse inflammatory condition symmetrically involving the whole larynx, i.e. true cords, ventricular bands, interarytenoid region and root of the epiglottis. It is caused by chronic infection in paranasal sinuses, teeth and tonsils, persistent trauma of cough, and vocal abuse. Constant hawking, Hyperaemia of laryngeal structures, and Hoarseness are some of the clinical features of chronic laryngitis. Treatment of chronic laryngitis is accompanied by eliminating infection of upper or lower respiratory tract, voice rest and speech therapy, steam inhalations, and expectorants. Pathology of chronic laryngitis changes in glottic region extend to ventricular bands, base of epiglottis and subglottis, and mucosa, submucosa, mucous glands are affected.
Reinke’s Oedema and Pachydermia Laryngis
Reinke’s Oedema is a bilateral symmetrical swelling of whole of membranous part of vocal cords. Treatment of Reinke’s oedema is followed by decortication of vocal cords, voice rest, and speech therapy. Pachydermia Laryngis is a form of chronic hypertrophic laryngitis affecting posterior part of larynx in region of interarytenoid and posterior part of the vocal cords. Clinical features include irritation in throat, granulation tissue in interarytenoid region, and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. Atrophic laryngitis is characterized by atrophy of laryngeal mucosa and crust formation. This condition is often seen in women and is associated with atrophic rhinitis and pharyngitis.
Other Inflammatory Conditions
Tuberculosis of larynx is caused by Tubercle bacilli reaching the larynx by bronchogenic or haematogenous routes. Symptoms and signs are weakness of voice, hoarseness, ulceration in larynx, severe pain radiating to ears. Laryngeal examination demonstrates hyperaemia of vocal cord, swelling in interarytenoid region. Lupus of larynx is an indolent tubercular infection associated with lupus of nose and pharynx. Syphilis of the larynx is a rare condition. It is presented as smooth swelling which later ulcerate. Leprosy of the larynx is a rare condition and is often associated with leprosy of the skin and nose. It presents as diffuse nodular infiltration of epiglottis, aryepiglottic folds and arytenoids. Scleroma of the larynx is a chronic inflammatory condition caused by Klebsiella rhinoscleromatis. laryngeal mycosis is a fungal infection and rarely affect larynx.