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If you want to know about benign and malignant diseases of prostate, then you are at right place. This lecture explains prostate cancer and covers all its aspects ranging from overview and screening and diagnostic techniques available to staging and treatment options. In addition to this another medical condition entitled as benign prostatic hypertrophy has also been elucidated.
In case of benign proliferative disorders, symptoms can be weighed against the side effects and certain complications associated with intervention can also be observed. Alongside this, prostate malignancies can contribute to death. Prostate cancer can be hereditary and influences ethnic groups differently. This malady can be prevented via intake of statins, finasteride, dutasteride along with 5α-reductase inhibitors.
Screening and Diagnosis
Physical examination of the individual is a must. It also demonstrates the changes in or elevated serum prostate surface antigen (PSA). One of the screening methods is based upon this antigen level detection. In addition to this, prostate biopsy can also be taken from peripheral zone and can be visualized by transrectal ultrasound (TRUS) or MRI. Moreover, the perineural invasion and extracapsular spread must also be examined.
Prostate Cancer Staging
Staging of this medical condition is based upon TNM method. Based upon this, it has four grades ranging from T1-T4 in which T3 and T4 extend outside the gland. Digital rectal examination (DRE) alone is inaccurate in determination of disease extent. CT scan and MRI are carried out for diagnosis. In case of MRI, there are two types. One is T1-weighted MRI whereas, the other one is the T2-weighed MRI. Along with these, radionuclide bone scans are also carried out which is quite a sensitive test.
Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy
This ailment is a pathologic process which is a contributor of lower urinary tract symptoms in males. It can be treated via surgical resection. Besides this, uroflowmetry, pressure-flow studies and cystoscopy must also be carried out. In addition to surgery, other treatment options include alpha adrenergic receptor antagonists and 5α-reductase inhibitors along with Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (PDE) and anticholinergics.