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Cerebral palsy is heterogeneous group of disorders of movement and posture attributed to non-progressive disturbances in fetal or infant brain which cause limitations in activity. Hemiplegia is the commonest form of cerebral palsy. Monoplegia occasionally appears in an upper limb, other areas are involved as well. Diplegia involves both sides of the body, with the lower limbs always most severely affected.
Spasticity is the commonest muscle movement disorder and is associated with damage to the pyramidal system in the CNS. A neonatal ultrasound scan of the head may identify an intraventricular haemorrhage. In Spastic diplegia, the lower limbs are more affected than the upper limbs. Knee ﬂexion deformity is usually due to functional hamstring tightness but is often aggravated by hip ﬂexion and/or weakness of ankle plantar ﬂexion.