Sexual assault is a crime of violence and aggression, and encompasses a continuum of sexual activity that ranges from sexual coercion to contact abuse to rape. The whole body surface should be searched for sexually orientated external injuries.
Bruises may be found on the lips and especially inside on the buccal surfaces. Bruises may also be seen on the thighs and buttocks. Where the assault takes place on a hard or uneven surface, bruises and abrasions may be seen on the back.
The vulva and anus should be inspected externally and laceration, swelling, and discharge noted. Any blood or suspected semen stains anywhere on the body or clothing should be sampled. For internal examination, the vagina is laid open to the posterior fornix and all injuries carefully examined and photographed. The cervix and uterus are examined in the same way.