sqadia.com offers supplements to medical students in the form of medical video lectures delivered by experienced medical practitioners. In view of this mission, sqadia.com offers variety of medical lectures on the course of forensic medicine. This medical lecture sheds light upon the fatal pressure applied to the neck. It covers all the aspects from asphyxial deaths to the various modes of death. These can be manual or ligature strangulation which are responsible for severe damage to the larynx. In addition to this, hanging, another employed mode of death, has also been deliberated upon.
For the better understanding of medical students, in depth elaboration is given on asphyxial death. These are the deaths associated with decreased oxygen concentration within the body. Pressure applied to the neck region can be owing to various reasons. These can be manual and ligature strangulation, hanging, arm-locks or some accidental lesions. A range of factors have been affiliated with such deaths. These encompass airway and neck veins occlusion, reflex cardiac arrest and blows to the throat. Cardiac arrest, florid congestion and petechiae in face are a few medico-legal aspects. However, the mechanism of injury and duration of nerve compression varies. Reflex cardiac arrest, a common presentation, is owing to carotid occlusion and cerebral ischaemia. Blows to the throat can either be direct or from impaction of food.
The medico-legal aspects of manual strangulation have also elaborated in this medical lecture. Autopsy appearances in manual strangulation falls into two groups viz local signs and signs demonstrating the mechanism of death. Bruising and abrasions are significantly observed in the neck region. The former can be due to superficial haematomas formation and may be fortuitous whereas, the latter can be due to the scratches from nails. At autopsy, the specimens collected for investigations include nail clippings, skin fragments, blood under nails, hair and fibres. Internal appearances, however, indicate bruising of muscles, infiltrated blood and venous engorgement. These can be verified by MSCT, MRI, neck radiography and X-ray of chest.
Damage to the Larynx
For MBBS students, the damage to the larynx has also been enlightened comprehensively in medical video lectures of sqadia.com for better understanding. Pressures applied to the neck cause serious damage to the laryngeal structure. One of the manifestations of this injury is spurious bleeding due to haematomas, bilateral pressure application and displacement of the horns. Hyoid bone is considered to be a marker of violence. Laryngeal fractures are also indicative of pressure applied to neck. Serious damage to laryngeal plate occurs. Ante-mortem fractures display haemorrhage, red cell extravasation, scratches and lesions. Other injuries include ala splitting, trauma, cricoid cartilage fracture, mucosal tearing, bleeding, cyanosis in addition to the damage caused to the carotid arteries. The latter is a vagal inhibition type of death.
Strangulation by Ligature
Strangulation by ligature is conversed about broadly in the medical video lecture at the platform of sqadia.com for medical and MBBS students. It is the constriction of neck and are majorly homicidal. Ligature mark has its significance in a forensic scene. Its appearance depends upon the nature and texture of ligature. It shows reddened hyperaemia at margins. Despite that, position of the mark also has medico-legal importance. In case of strangulation, position can either be above or below larynx. Other signs include fingernails marks, damage to muscles, hyoid bone and thyroid horns fractures. Mode of death, however, in this mode of death is classic asphyxia. Death is contributed to by puffy skin, cardiac arrest, conjunctivae and ear and nose bleeding. Arm-locks and mugging also are a mode of death in this case.
Hanging is discussed comprehensively in the medical video lecture at the platform of sqadia.com for medical and MBBS students. It is a form of ligature strangulation where force on neck is derived from gravitational drag of body’s own weight. Judicial hanging is one of its types. It depends upon mechanical disruption of neck and leads to brainstem disruption, cervical cord dislocation and hypoxia. Suicidal hangings, on the other hand, are more common and do not show vasovagal effect. Hanging mark indicates the locus for suspension point. Its position holds significance in giving a clue about the mode of death victim employed. Autopsy appearances portrays hypostasis, congestion, damage to carotid artery, Simon’s haemorrhage and many more. Hanging usually presents as pale facial appearance, airway obstruction and venous occlusion. Another form of hanging is accidental and homicidal. There is another term called sexual asphyxias, frequent in males, can be a cause of death.