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Data 2fimages 2ffivxzd2hrzijqtycamcj 190329 s0 haider hammad fractures intro
Data 2fimages 2f7zedzpz0rqwlni73t6nm 190329 s1 haider hammad types of fractures
Types of Fractures
Data 2fimages 2f2nbtyf3sfgaceaourjua 190329 s2 haider hammad healing of fractures
Healing of Fractures
Data 2fimages 2f7ukq8bf9sbwbw0ez1qvb 190329 s3 haider hammad repair of fractures
Repair of Fractures
Data 2fimages 2fkkj5tcdt7gjkte6excgk 190329 s4 haider hammad diagnosis of fractures
Diagnosis of Fractures
Data 2fimages 2ffypp30kgsl7apbo4uv30 190329 s5 haider hammad secondary injuries
Secondary Injuries

Lecture´s Description

This medical video lecture is all about fractures. Initially, types of fractures are discussed including open, closed, complete and incomplete fractures. After that, orthopaedic surgeon talks about healing of fractures, primary bone healing and secondary bone healing. Then repair of fractures, diagnosis of fractures through different imaging modalities, and secondary injuries are deliberated in detail.

Types of Fractures

A fracture is break in structural continuity of bone. There are two types of fractures i.e. closed fracture and open fracture. Pathological fractures may occur with normal stresses. In complete fractures, bone split into two or more fragments while in incomplete fractures bone is incompletely divided. After that Dr. Hammad Haider diagrammatically explains the Muller’s classification along with displacement of fractures.

Healing of Fractures

Fracture healing is characterized by a process of new bone formation with fusion of the bone fragments. Healing is either primary or secondary. In primary bone healing, osteoblastic new bone formation takes place. Contact healing and gap healing are also elaborated under the heading of primary bone healing. Secondary bone healing ensures mechanical strength.

Repair of Fractures

Initially, orthopaedic surgeon sheds light on union. Discussion continues on delayed union. After that non-union comes under consideration in which Dr. Hammad Haider talks about Causes of aseptic non-union and septic non-unions. Lastly, general management is discussed on this section. In order to gain comprehensive knowledge about repair of fractures, stream the lecture at

Diagnosis of Fractures

For diagnosis of fractures, X-ray diagnosis is more reliable ad rule of twos is followed. Systematic approach is to examine most obviously injured part. Then local signs are reported. Special imaging modalities include CT scan, MRI, Radioisotope scanning, and ultrasound. Shape of the fracture can be transverse fracture, spiral fracture or comminuted fracture.

Secondary Injuries

Thoracic injuries, spinal cord injury, pelvic and abdominal injuries, and pectoral girdle injuries are the secondary injuries. All of these injuries are delineated in succession. After that Dr. Hammad Haider tells that in closed fractures, general treatment is the first consideration i.e. treat the whole patient, not only fracture. Following this, Tscherne classification of closed injuries is pursued which is divide into grade 0-3.

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