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Hemorrhage and Hyperemia
This Sqadia Video addresses about hemodynamic dysfunction. Hemorrhage is defined as escape of blood from vasculature into the surrounding tissue. Most often caused by trauma. Hyperemia is an increased amount of blood in the vessels of an organ or tissue in the body. It can affect many different organs, including the: liver, heart, skin, eyes and brain. There are two types of hyperemia: Active hyperemia happens when there’s an increase in the blood supply to an organ. This is usually in response to a greater demand for blood for example, if you’re exercising. Passive hyperemia is when blood can’t properly exit an organ, so it builds up in the blood vessels. This type of hyperemia is also known as congestion. Each type of hyperemia has a different cause. Active hyperemia is caused by an increased flow of blood into your organs. It usually happens when organs need more blood than usual. Blood vessels widen to increase the supply of blood flowing in.
Thrombosis is intravascular coagulation of blood. Predisposed by conditions like venous stasis (immobilization), CHF, polycythemia, visceral malignancies, sickle cell disease, oral contraceptives and smoking. Results from interaction of platelets, damaged endothelial cells and coagulation cascade. Concurrent with thrombogenesis and modulates coagulation. Restores blood flow in vessels occluded by a thrombus and facilitates healing after inflammation or injury. Plasminogen is converted into plasmin (fibrinolytic protease). Endothelial cells line the inside of every blood vessel in the body. They form a one-cell-thick layer called the endothelium, which is also found on the inner walls of the heart chambers and lymphatic vessels, which carry excess blood plasma around the body. The endothelium is very extensive.
Morphologic Characteristics of Thrombi and Thrombotic Disorders
Antithrombotic (hemorrhagic) such as haemophilia or prothrombotic, leading to hyper coagulability. Infarction occurs as a result of prolonged ischemia, which is the insufficient supply of oxygen and nutrition to an area of tissue due to a disruption in blood supply. The blood vessel supplying the affected area of tissue may be blocked due to an obstruction in the vessel (e.g., an arterial embolus, thrombus, or atherosclerotic plaque), compressed by something outside of the vessel causing it to narrow (e.g., tumor, volvulus, or hernia), ruptured by trauma causing a loss of blood pressure downstream of the rupture, or vasoconstricted, which is the narrowing of the blood vessel by contraction of the muscle wall rather than an external force (e.g., cocaine vasoconstriction leading to myocardial infarction). Hemorrhage in the heart occurs from nonobstructed portion of vasculature that can also be caused by venous occlusion – associated with volvulus, incarverated hernias and post-operative adhesions.
An embolism is the lodging of an embolus, a blockage-causing piece of material, inside a blood vessel. The embolus may be a blood clot (thrombus), a fat globule (fat embolism), a bubble of air or other gas (gas embolism), or foreign material. The symptoms of an embolism depend on the particular type of embolism involved. The main symptoms of a stroke are drooping of the face, weakness or numbness in one arm, and slurred speech or an inability to talk at all. A fracture to a long bone, such as a thigh bone, can lead to fat particles within the bone being released into the bloodstream. Fat particles can also sometimes develop following severe burns or as a complication of bone surgery. In rare cases, amniotic fluid which surrounds and protects a baby inside the womb can leak into the mother's blood vessels during labour, causing a blockage. This can lead to breathing problems, a drop-in blood pressure and loss of consciousness.
Edema and Shock
Edema (or Oedema) is the abnormal accumulation of fluid in certain tissues within the body. The accumulation of fluid may be under the skin usually in dependent areas such as the legs (peripheral edema, or ankle edema), or it may accumulate in the lungs (pulmonary edema). The location of edema can provide the health care practitioner the first clues in regard to the underlying cause of the fluid accumulation. Shock is a life-threatening medical condition of low blood perfusion to tissues resulting in cellular injury and inadequate tissue function. The typical signs of shock are low blood pressure, rapid heart rate, signs of poor end-organ perfusion (i.e., low urine output, confusion, or loss of consciousness), and weak pulses.