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This Sqadia video covers the process of inflammation. Inflammation is the vascular response to injury. Inflammation is the body's attempt at self-protection to remove harmful stimuli and begin the healing process. Inflammation is part of the body's immune response. Infections, wounds, and any damage to tissue would not be able to heal without an inflammatory response. Process of Inflammation includes exudation of fluid from vessels, attraction of leukocytes to injury, engulf and destroy bacteria, tissue debris etc. Protecting the injured area from further damage is crucial to the healing process. Experts recommended acute injury patients use P.R.I.C.E. The acronym stands for Protection, Rest, Ice, Compression and Elevation. Cardinal signs of acute inflammation: Rubor (red discoloration), calor (heat), dolor (pain), tumor (mass effect), and loss of function. Causes of acute inflammation is: Infection, trauma, physical and chemical agents, necrosis, foreign bodies, and immune reactions.
Acute Inflammation and Types of Inflammatory Cells
An acute inflammation is one that starts rapidly and becomes severe in a short space of time. Signs and symptoms are normally only present for a few days but may persist for a few weeks in some cases. Acute inflammation has a rapid onset, lasts for minutes to days, and is characterized by exudation of fluid and protein from vessels and emigration of neutrophils. Acute inflammation is a protective process that is designed to rid the body of the inciting agent and set up the process of repair. Vasoactive changes begin with vasoconstriction followed shortly by vasodilation. Increase in blood flow to the affected area cause redness. Chronic inflammation has a longer time course (days to years) and involves different cell types than does acute inflammation (lymphocytes and macrophages versus neutrophils). Also, in chronic inflammation, tissue repair coexists with tissue destruction.
Cellular Response to Leukocytes and Hereditary defects
Cellular responses to leukocytes are:
- Intracellular microbial killing
Emigration is the passage of leukocytes between endothelial cells into interstitial tissue. Rolling is mediated by endothelial selectins loosely binding leukocytes. Adhesion is mediated by interaction of integrins to immunoglobulin family adhesion proteins. Transmigration is mediated by platelet endothelial cell adhesion molecule. Process by which leukocytes are attracted to and move towards inured site is called chemotaxis. Neutrophils and monocytes are the most important phagocytic cells. Internalization of attached opsonized particle by pseudopodial extensions from the leukocyte, enclosing the foreign particle in a phagosome which then fuses with lysosomes to form phagolysosomes.
Outcomes of Acute Inflammation and Chronic Inflammation
Outcomes of acute inflammation involves tissue destruction and persistent acute inflammation like abscess, ulcer, fistula and scar. Conversion to chronic inflammation is marked by replacement of neutrophils and monocytes by lymphocytes, plasma cells and macrophages. Proliferation of fibroblasts and new vessels with resultant scarring and distortion of structure. When injury is persistent or recurrent, or when the reaction is insufficient to completely degrade the agent. Two common patterns are: chronic nonspecific inflammation and granulomatous inflammation. Chronic nonspecific inflammation is characterized by a cellular reaction with a preponderance of mononuclear round cells (macrophages, lymphocytes plasma cells). Granulomatous inflammation involves activation of macrophages by interaction with T-lymphocytes. Infections that are characterized by granulomas include tuberculosis, leprosy, histoplasmosis, cryptococcosis, coccidioidomycosis, blastomycosis and cat scratch disease.
The term “repair,” when used in the context of the healing of damaged tissue, is defined as the restoration of tissue architecture and function after an injury. When connective tissue infrastructure is relatively intact. It requires the surviving parenchymal cells to have regenerative capacity. Labile cells divide actively throughout life to replace lost cells and are capable of regeneration. Cells of epidermis, GIT Mucosa, lining of the genitourinary tract, hematopoietic bone marrow cells. Cellular proliferation is mediated by an assemblage of growth factors: Platelet Derived Growth Factor (PDGF), Epidermal Growth Factor (EGF), Fibroblast Growth Factors (FGFs), Transforming Growth Factors (TGFs) and Macrophage Derived Growth Factors (TGFs). The repair process is removal of debris and begins in the early stages of inflammation. Initiated by liquefaction and removal of dead cellular material and other debris.