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Cyanide is a relatively common poison, both in suicide, accident and, occasionally, homicide. Cyanide poisoning can be caused by sodium or potassium salt intake, free gas from commercial process, or hydrolysis of amygdalin
releases hydrocyanic acid. External damages in autopsy findings in cyanide poisoning are local tissue damage, brick-red hypostasis, dark pink or even bright red skin, bitter cyanide smell about body. Internal changes in autopsy findings demonstrates bright pink tissues, stomach lining damage, petechial haemorrhages, damage to oesophagus.
Corrosive acids, alkalis and phenols
Corrosive acids, alkalis and phenols are common suicidal agents used for homicide, assault, or suicide. Destructive effects corrode the skin, lips may be burnt, spasm of pylorus, glottis area may become oedematous, and pharynx, larynx, oesophagus erosion. Corrosive acids are sulphuric acid, nitric acid, and hydrochloric acid. Corrosive alkaline and phenols are sodium hydroxide, carbolic acid, and lysol.
Ethylene glycol poisoning
Features of ethylene glycol poisoning are common with oxalate poisoning. It is an antifreeze agent. Its first effects resemble drunkenness. At autopsy, no local damage occurs but calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals are found in kidney, chemical meningoencephalitis is seen, and lactic acidosis is observed. Oxalic acid and oxalate salts are locally corrosive and poisonous and cause death within minutes or hour. Autopsy findings illustrates bleaching, acute erosions, abnormalities of muscle function, renal failure.
Arsenic effects constituent of all animal tissue and it is poisonous in compound form. 150 mg on empty stomach may be fatal dose in arsenical poisoning, 250–300 mg is minimum lethal dose and large doses vomited out. Autopsy findings of chronic arsenical poisoning demonstrates haemorrhagic gastritis, liver necrosis, oedema of face and hair loss. Antimony is similar to arsenic both in pathology and toxicology. Thallium poisoning cause hair loss, loss of outer third of eyebrows, liver and renal tubular necrosis.
Deaths from organic solvents
A wide range of organic compounds used in industry and in the home as solvents may cause injury or death. The effects vary from a state resembling alcoholic intoxication through euphoria and distortion of perception, to actual hallucinations. Danger of solvent abuse is that the major cause of death appears to be sudden cardiac arrest, following an arrhythmia. Chemical effects are erotic hypoxia and hypercapnia, hallucinogenic effect, ventricular fibrillation. Substances used in abuse are toluene, carbon tetrachloride, petrol, xylene and benzene.