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Diseases of Skeletal Muscles
Muscular dystrophy is a group of diseases that causes progressive weakness and loss of muscle mass. In muscular dystrophy, abnormal genes interfere with the production of proteins (dystrophin) needed to form healthy muscle. Duchenne muscular dystrophy typically appear between the ages of 2 and 3. Becker muscular dystrophyis a milder and progress more slowly. Symptoms generally begin in the teens but may not occur until the mid-20s or even later. Myasthenia gravis is a muscular weakness, profound. This is an autoimmune disease that involves production of antibodies that interfere with nerves stimulating muscle contractions. A postural syndrome is the result of prolonged postures or positions that can affect joint surfaces, muscles, or tendons. Myositis means inflammation of the muscles that you use to move your body. An injury, infection, or autoimmune disease can cause it. Two specific kinds are polymyositis and dermatomyositis. Polymyositis causes muscle weakness, usually in the muscles closest to the trunk of your body. Leiomyomas grow from smooth muscle, which is found in internal organs such as the stomach and uterus. They can start in the walls of blood vessels. In the wall of the uterus, leiomyomas are often called fibroids. A rare benign tumor of skeletal muscle is rhabdomyoma.
Diseases of Bones
Osteomyelitis is an infection of the bone, a rare but serious condition. Osteopenia is a condition of bone that is slightly less dense than normal bone but not to the degree of bone in osteoporosis. DXA testing for proper diagnosis of bone health. Paget’s Disease interferes with body's normal recycling process, in which new bone tissue gradually replaces old bone tissue. Over time, bones become fragile and misshapen. Elevated levels of alkaline phosphatase in their blood. Most commonly occurs in the pelvis, skull, spine and legs. The rapid remodelling produces softer and weaker bones, which can lead to bone pain, deformities and fractures. Enlarged and misshapen bones in your legs can put extra stress on nearby joints, which may cause osteoarthritis in your knee or hip. Osteomalacia and Rickets involves softening of the bones, results from a defect in the bone-maturing process. Most often caused by calcium and severe vitamin D deficiency. It can lead to bowing during growth, especially in weight-bearing bones of the legs and also lead to fractures. Some of the other causes include surgeries, celiac disease, kidney or liver disease and drugs.
Diseases of Joints (OA & RA)
Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most common chronic condition of the joints. It occurs when the cartilage or cushion between joints breaks down leading to pain, stiffness and swelling. The most common symptoms of osteoarthritis are stiffness, particularly first thing in the morning or after resting, and pain. Affected joints may get swollen after extended activity. Rheumatoid Arthritis is systemic autoimmune disorder, symmetric poly arthritis. Characterized by synovitis with thickening and infiltration by inflammatory cells. Synovium proliferates and grows over cartilage producing a tumor like mass called pannus destroying cartilage and subchondral bone. No treatment, goals are remission of symptoms. Rheumatoid factor in 70% cases but may also be in connective tissue diseases. Mechanical disorders are: Postural Syndromes, Dysfunction Syndromes and Derangement Syndromes.
Diseases of Joints (Inflammatory Arthritis)
Inflammatory arthritis is a group of diseases characterized by synovial inflammation and morning stiffness and joint pain. These include rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis and systemic lupus erythematosus among others. Ankylosing spondylitis is a type of arthritis that affects the spine. Ankylosing spondylitis symptoms include pain and stiffness from the neck down to the lower back. The spine's bones (vertebrae) fuse together, resulting in a rigid spine. Psoriatic arthritis is a form of arthritis that affects some people who have psoriasis a condition that features red patches of skin topped with silvery scales. Most people develop psoriasis first and are later diagnosed with psoriatic arthritis, but the joint problems can sometimes begin before skin lesions appear. Crystal arthritis (also known as pseudogout) is a type of calcium crystal disease. It occurs when calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) crystals deposit within the joints, which can cause sudden attacks of painful inflammation. Septic arthritis is also known as infectious arthritis and is usually caused by bacteria. It can also be caused by a virus or fungus. The condition is an inflammation of a joint that's caused by infection. Typically, septic arthritis affects one large joint in the body, such as the knee or hip.
Soft Tissue Tumors
Sarcoma is a type of cancer that develops from certain tissues. It has 50 to 100 subtypes. Most common in limbs, then trunk and abdomen and lastly the head and neck. Its causes maybe genetic or epigenetic factors. A leiomyoma, also known as fibroids, is a benign smooth muscle tumor that very rarely becomes cancer (0.1%). They can occur in any organ, but the most common forms occur in the uterus, small bowel, and the oesophagus. Rhabdomyoma is rare, usually benign tumor of striated muscles. It most commonly occurs in the heart. Some forms of this tumor may metastasize. Rhabdomyosarcoma is a malignant tumor that arises in the skeletal muscles. Mostly located in the leg or arm muscles. May recur even after amputation of the involved extremity. The only symptom may be a slowly growing mass. The Rhabdomyoblast is the diagnostic cell with granular eosinophilic cytoplasm rich in thick and thin filaments.