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The elucidation of Nutritional Disorders is delivered in this Sqadia video. Malnutrition is a condition that results from eating a diet in which nutrients are either not enough or are too much such that the diet causes health problems. It may involve calories, protein, carbohydrates, vitamins or minerals. In affluent countries malnutrition is found in children living below the poverty line. A fad diet is a diet that promises quick weight loss which is usually an unhealthy and unbalanced diet, claiming that they make one lose fat, but in reality, it’s just water loss. Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by an abnormally low body weight, an intense fear of gaining weight and a distorted perception of weight. Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE). In developing countries protein-calorie malnutrition usually takes place, in two major forms: Marasmus and Kwashiorkor. Marasmus is caused by widespread deficiency of almost all nutrients, notably protein and calories. Kwashiorkor is caused with protein deficiency but with adequate calorie intake.
Water Soluble Vitamins
A vitamin is an organic compound and an essential nutrient that an organism requires in limited amounts. Vitamins are of two types: Water Soluble Vitamins and Fat-Soluble Vitamins. Water Soluble Vitamins are not stored in the body thus, regular intake is essential, except for B12. B-complex Vitamins, B1 (Thiamine), B2 (Riboflavin), B3 (Niacin), B6 (Pyridoxine), B12 (Cobalamin), Folic Acid, and Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) are classed in water soluble vitamins. Citrus fruits, bell peppers, guavas, dark and leafy green vegetables are source of vitamin C. Poultry, fish, soybeans, nuts, peas and bananas are source of vitamin B6. B complex deficiency is often marked with glossitis, dermatitis and diarrhea.
Water Soluble Vitamin Deficiencies
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) deficiency is associated with severe malnutrition, alcoholism and diets. Three distinct syndromes are Dry Beriberi which is a Peripheral neuropathy, Wet Beriberi results from peripheral dilation of peripheral arteries and capillaries, and Wernicke Korsakoff Syndrome is a setting of thiamine deficiency and alcoholism. Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin) deficiency occurs due to alcoholism, FAD dieters. Vitamin B3 (Niacin) deficiency occurs only when diet is deficient in both niacin and tryptophan because niacin can be synthesized from tryptophan. Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) deficiency is characterized by convulsion in infants due to decreased activity of pyridoxal dependent glutamate decarboxylase leading to deficient production of GABA. Vitamin B12 (Cobalamin) deficiency results in marked reduction in DNA replication process and cell division. Folic Acid deficiency is most commonly of dietary origin and occurs oftenly in alcoholics and FAD dieters. Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid Deficiency) is characterized by defective formation of mesenchymal tissue and osteoid matrix due to impaired synthesis of hydroxyproline and hydroxy lysine for which vitamin c is a cofactor.
Fat Soluble Vitamins
Fat soluble vitamins are Vitamin A, Vitamin D (Calciferol), Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) and Vitamin K. Deficiency may result from malnutrition and intestinal malabsorption, pancreatic endocrine insufficiency, biliary obstruction, all of which are associated with poor absorption of fats. Vitamin A term for a group of compounds (retinoids) with similar activities that are provided by animal products such as liver, egg yolk, and butter. Vitamin A dietary deficiency or malabsorption leads to night blindness, and squamous metaplasia. Vitamin D promotes intestinal calcium absorption mediated by calcium binding intestinal transport protein as well as intestinal phosphorus absorption. Exposure to sunlight is required for synthesis. Vitamin D deficiency leads to Rickets in children and Osteomalacia in adults. Vitamin E has many biological functions, including its role as a fat-soluble antioxidant. Vitamin E deficiency is rare in humans, occurring as a consequence of abnormalities in dietary fat absorption or metabolism rather than from a diet low in vitamin E. Vitamin K is synthesized by intestinal microorganisms and is provided by green and yellow vegetables and dairy products. Vitamin K deficiency results from fat malabsorption or alterations in the intestinal flora caused by antibiotics.
Obesity is a medical condition in which excess body fat has accumulated to the extent that it may have a negative effect on health. A BMI of ≥ 35 kg/m2 and experiencing obesity-related health conditions or ≥40–44.9 kg/m2 is morbid obesity. A BMI of ≥ 45 or 50 kg/m2 is super obesity. Obesity is most commonly caused by a combination of excessive food intake, lack of physical activity, and genetic susceptibility. The view that obese people eat little yet gain weight due to a slow metabolism is not generally supported. Obesity increases the likelihood of various diseases and conditions including but not limited to Cardiovascular diseases, Type 2 diabetes, Obstructive sleep apnea and Certain types of cancer. The main treatment for obesity consists of dieting and physical exercise. In the short-term low carbohydrate diets appear better than low fat diets for weight loss. In the long term; however, all types of low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets appear equally beneficial.