This sqadia.com medical video lecture talks about the pathology of sudden or unexpected death. Our medical specialist, Dr Hina Khan elucidates about the various underlying reasons of death. Some of the causative factors include ruptured cerebral aneurysm, epilepsy and pulmonary thromboembolism. Additionally, certain gastrointestinal disorders (haemorrhages, fata abdominal catastrophes) have delineated in-detail. In the end, the educator sheds light upon the trauma and disease as being one of the several contributors of the demise of an individual.
Reasons of Unexpected Death
The educator begins by talking about the causes of sudden or unexpected death. Death can be attributed to by various factors such as cardiovascular anomalies, massive cerebral haemorrhage, subarachnoid bleeding, haematemesis etc. One of the most common cause of unexpected death is ruptured cerebral aneurysm. In this medical condition, arterial blood impinges onto the base of the brain. Autopsy presentations indicate bleeding, haemosiderin, angioma or intracranial bleeding. Sudden death can also be due to epilepsy. At autopsy, it demonstrates no lesions and can be a cause of asphyxial death. Toxicological screening must, therefore, be carried out. In addition to these causes, unexpected death can also be caused by disruptions in the genitourinary system. It may include complications of pregnancy, infections, embolism or perforations in the vagina or uterus.
In this section, Dr Hina Khan has discussed about various pulmonary diseases. Pulmonary thromboembolism, being one of those ailments, becomes more common with advancing age. It can be owing to any trauma, surgery or due to adoption of a sedentary lifestyle. Moreover, there can be sudden death in case of bronchial asthma. This condition can be triggered by allergens (pollens etc) or due to cardiotoxicity by bronchodilators. Alongside this, respiratory obstruction and haemoptysis can also be one of the several causes of sudden death.
Gastrointestinal disorders include a range of disorders which can contribute towards an individual’s death. Gastrointestinal haemorrhage is one of them and can be due to portal hypertension or hepatic fibrosis. Autopsy appearances portray congested bluish vessels around cardia and gives away lesions. Other causes of this haemorrhage can be gastric or duodenal ulcers, diathesis, colonic lesions or malignant polyps as well. Furthermore, fatal abdominal catastrophes can be one of the underlying reasons of death. It can be contributed by mesenteric thrombosis, atherosclerosis, internal strangulation, hernias, hypostasis in addition to fulminating peritonitis. Other anomalies encompass perforations in the colon through diverticulum or the tearing of the senile gut leading to peritonitis or carcinoma.
Trauma and Disease
A major contributor of death can be trauma and any underlying disease. There exists a relationship between trauma and disease. Identification of the actual cause of death is a must. Coronary atherosclerosis can be a reason and it indicates direct traumatic lesions and subintimal haemorrhage. In addition to that, myocardial infarction, arrythmias, tachycardia and an atheromatous plaque dislodgement are also the reasons of individual demise. Besides these medical conditions, subarachnoid haemorrhage and pulmonary embolism can lead to the progression towards death.