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Research Question & Introduction to Research Design
In this lecture ´´Research Design´´ is explained. Section one is about ´´Research Question and Introduction to Research Design´´. Research aims to establish new knowledge around a particular topic. So, in the first few slides research questions are pursued. After that different kinds of research questions are explained. Moreover, educator tells about the research design. At last, hierarchy of evidence is illustrated.
Section two is about ‘’Descriptive Studies’’. At first, in this section educator tells about observational studies and its divisions. This is followed by the detailed discussion of descriptive studies. In the next slide information is delivered on case report. Then case series comes under consideration. Moreover, similarities between case report and case series are highlighted. Subsequently, cross-sectional studies are reported. Lastly educator tells that when to use cross-sectional studies.
Section three is about ‘’Analytical Studies’’. Educator initially talks about what are analytical studies. After that explains the cross sectional comparative study. This is followed by the elucidation of case control studies. Then educator focuses on when to use a case-control design. Moreover, advantages and disadvantage of retrospective case-control studies are presented. Subsequently, cohort studies are pursued. Design of cohort study is also of prime focus. Then difficulties with cohort studies are discussed. In the last slide, elucidation is given on when to use a cohort study design.
Section four is about ‘’Interventional Studies’’. Educator tells about ethical concerns of interventional studies. In the next slide interventional studies is explained. After that choice of control is made. Then educator tells that a randomized controlled trial (RCT) is an interventional study in which subjects are randomly allocated to treatment options. Following this, randomization in clinical trials is pursued. Moving onward is the blinding in randomized controlled trials (RCT). Then RCTs: parallel group design is elucidated. Likewise, discussion continues on advantages and disadvantages of parallel group design. After that RCTs: crossover trials are reported. Advantages and Disadvantages of crossover design are also focused. Then superiority trials come under consideration. Moreover, information is conveyed on equivalence trials and non-inferiority trials. This is followed by the explanation of quasi experimental design. Alongside, advantages of quasi experimental design are reported. Additionally, disadvantages of quasi experimental design are pursued.
Sampling Techniques and Sample Size Calculation
Section five is about ‘’Sampling Techniques and Sample Size Calculation’’. First of all, sampling techniques are illustrated. This include Convenience Sampling, Snowball and Purposive Sampling, Quota Sampling, Random Sample/ Simple Random Sampling, Stratified Sampling, and Cluster Sampling. All of these are explained in succession. After that educator gives information on choosing a sample size. Moreover, consequences of too small a sample is given first of which is studies producing estimates. Then second step in consequences of too small a sample is studies making comparisons. Concluding remarks are given on calculating sample size. Finally, educator reveals information on Using a Statistical Program (Raosoft) to do the Calculations.