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Keeping in mind the global need of medical knowledge, sqadia.com follows medical books that are accepted throughout the entire world, so that every medical student can get advantage of the medical lectures made by sqadia.com. The lecture sudden death in infancy is also designed by following the instructions of the book of Forensic Medicine i.e. ¨Knight's Forensic Pathology¨. This lecture is well explicated by our medical specialist Dr Hina Khan by primarily discussing about the certain cause of infant demise along with certain risk factors which can contribute to the phenomena. Moreover, external and laboratory findings accompanied with autopsy findings have been shed light upon. In the end, the medicolegal problems in cot deaths have also been thoroughly elucidated and the significance of parents counselling has also been highlighted.
The medical lecture sudden death in infancy firstly focus on the causes of the infant death. Sudden death in infancy is unexpected by history, and thorough necropsy fails to demonstrate the adequate cause of death. There are various causes which are responsible for unexpected infant death. It can be attributed to by certain infections (pneumonia, myocarditis), Reye syndrome, metabolic diseases (hyperinsulinism) and hyperthermia. In addition to these, various malformations, dysplasias of lungs and suffocation owing to chest compressions and stomach aspiration can be a leading cause. Other causative factors include Shaken baby syndrome, poisoning, traumas and Munchausen syndrome by proxy. Incident rate contributed to by congenital malformations is the highest amongst other causes.
For MBBS students, detailed explanation of risk factors is delivered under the lecture title sudden death in infancy. Out of a range of risk factors, responsible for deceased infant, age is a significant contributor. Death is highest at the age of 14 days, for congenital anomalies in mortalities per 104. In addition to this, gender and twining also poses a threat. Seasonal variation of Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) varies with the region. Social strata and housing of that infant also is a contributor.
External and Laboratory Findings
External and laboratory findings have been deliberated comprehensively in the medical video lecture at the platform of sqadia.com for medical and MBBS students. Out of various external findings, look for signs and time of death, any signs of violence and body temperature. Moreover, oedema fluid can exude out from mouth, hands may be clenched, deceased infant may show frank bleeding and stomach contents can be seen on the face. Histological findings in case of SIDS are primarily the pulmonary inflammation and peribronchiolar cell infiltration. However, the inconstant findings encompass chronic hypoxia, gliosis in brainstem, brown fat retention along with certain changes in myocardium, parathyroid and liver. Out of an amalgam of causation theories, few marks allergy to cow milk, vitamin, magnesium and biotin deficiency in addition to nasal obstruction, hyperthermia and immunodeficiency as major contributors of the demise.
At sqadia.com, according to the medical syllabus of forensic medicine course, autopsy findings have also been discussed under the chapter of sudden death in infancy. Autopsy appearances vary. In case of SIDS, whole-body post-mortem imaging and radiological survey of the infant is carried out. Despite this, all external surfaces must be grossly examined, and a full histological survey must also be executed. At autopsy, inconstant froth at lips and nostrils, petechial haemorrhages accompanying fibres in clenched fists can be observed. Moreover, gastric contents can also be found in the air passage. The deceased must present with certain respiratory infections, pulmonary oedema in addition to some other anomalies like Down syndrome and congenital heath disease.
Medicolegal Problems in Cot Deaths
For the better understanding of medical students, in depth elaboration is given on medicolegal problems in cot deaths as well. Out of the range of medicolegal issues, one involves the differentiation of SIDS from external suffocation. In case of the former, intrathoracic petechiae to the thymic cortex can be instituted. However, multiple sudden infant deaths can be the possibility of foul play or some familial metabolic or genetic ailments. Counselling of the parents, in this regard, must be carried out. They ought to be informed of the underlying reason of their child expiry. In addition to this, they must also be provided an understanding of extrinsic and intrinsic risk factors that may be responsible for the child death.