Lecture´s Description

**Statistical Software Packages **

In this lecture **´´Using Statistical Software and Summarizing Data´´ **is explained. Section one is about **´´Statistical Software Packages**´´. Educator starts this section with **statistical software packages**. Then moves to telling **what do statistical packages do?** Following this, explanation is given on **how packages work?** After that **menu-driven packages** are discussed. Subsequently, **command-driven packages** are pursued. Furthermore, elucidation of **using a package** is given. The discussion continues on **transferring data between packages**. Lastly, **potential problems in transferring data** are reported.

**Planning the Analysis**

Section two is about **‘’Planning the Analysis’’.** Initially, educator talk about **planning the analysis**. After that information about **extracting the relevant results** is conveyed. Then **missing data** is explained. Moreover, educator tells what is **variable**. In the end, **statistic**
is elaborated.

**Types of Data**

Section three is about **‘’Types of Data’’.** Educator starts this section by introducing **quantitative and categorical data.** After that **quantitative data** is discussed in detail. Then **interval scale** is focused. This is followed by **ratio scale**. Later on, **ordinal data** is explained. Moving onward, **categorical data** comes under consideration. Following this educator gives information on **categorical data: ordering**. Lastly, **categorizing continuous data** is thoroughly discussed.

**Summarizing Quantitative and Categorical Data**

Section four is about **‘’Summarizing Quantitative and Categorical Data’’.** In the beginning, educator tells the purpose of **summarizing data**. Then gives information about **summarizing quantitative data**. This is followed by thorough explanation of **mean, median, **and** mode**. After that **standard deviation** is discussed. Subsequently, **range**
is elucidated along with **inter-quartile range**. Furthermore, **percentiles** are focused. Next focus is **choosing summary measure for quantitative data**. Afterwards, **centre of distribution** is highlighted. This is followed by **spread of distribution**. The discussion continues on **summarizing categorical data**. Moving onward, **unordered categories (nominal data)** are presented. Then **ordered categories (ordinal data)** are reported. Finally, **cross tabulations** are discussed.

**Diagrams and Graphs**

Section five is about **‘’Diagrams and Graphs’’.** Educator's first theme of discussion is **histogram**. After that **stem and leaf plot** is explained. Following this, **box and whisker plot** is presented. Then **dot plot** is elaborated. Next, **shapes of distributions** are focused. After that **positively skewed data** and **negatively skewed data** are reported respectively. Moving onward, **displaying categorical data** is elaborated. Then **bar charts **and** pie charts** come under consideration. Both of them are discussed in detail. Lastly, educator gives information on **producing charts**. Educator tells that producing charts both bar and pie charts can be easily produced using software packages.