# Lecture´s Description

**Statistical Software Packages**In this lecture

**´´Using Statistical Software and Summarizing Data´´**is explained. Section one is about

**´´Statistical Software Packages**´´. Educator starts this section with

**statistical software packages**. Then moves to telling

**what do statistical packages do?**Following this, explanation is given on

**how packages work?**After that

**menu-driven packages**are discussed. Subsequently,

**command-driven packages**are pursued. Furthermore, elucidation of

**using a package**is given. The discussion continues on

**transferring data between packages**. Lastly,

**potential problems in transferring data**are reported.

**Planning the Analysis**Section two is about

**‘’Planning the Analysis’’.**Initially, educator talk about

**planning the analysis**. After that information about

**extracting the relevant results**is conveyed. Then

**missing data**is explained. Moreover, educator tells what is

**variable**. In the end,

**statistic**is elaborated.

**Types of Data**Section three is about

**‘’Types of Data’’.**Educator starts this section by introducing

**quantitative and categorical data.**After that

**quantitative data**is discussed in detail. Then

**interval scale**is focused. This is followed by

**ratio scale**. Later on,

**ordinal data**is explained. Moving onward,

**categorical data**comes under consideration. Following this educator gives information on

**categorical data: ordering**. Lastly,

**categorizing continuous data**is thoroughly discussed.

**Summarizing Quantitative and Categorical Data**Section four is about

**‘’Summarizing Quantitative and Categorical Data’’.**In the beginning, educator tells the purpose of

**summarizing data**. Then gives information about

**summarizing quantitative data**. This is followed by thorough explanation of

**mean, median,**and

**mode**. After that

**standard deviation**is discussed. Subsequently,

**range**is elucidated along with

**inter-quartile range**. Furthermore,

**percentiles**are focused. Next focus is

**choosing summary measure for quantitative data**. Afterwards,

**centre of distribution**is highlighted. This is followed by

**spread of distribution**. The discussion continues on

**summarizing categorical data**. Moving onward,

**unordered categories (nominal data)**are presented. Then

**ordered categories (ordinal data)**are reported. Finally,

**cross tabulations**are discussed.

**Diagrams and Graphs**Section five is about

**‘’Diagrams and Graphs’’.**Educator's first theme of discussion is

**histogram**. After that

**stem and leaf plot**is explained. Following this,

**box and whisker plot**is presented. Then

**dot plot**is elaborated. Next,

**shapes of distributions**are focused. After that

**positively skewed data**and

**negatively skewed data**are reported respectively. Moving onward,

**displaying categorical data**is elaborated. Then

**bar charts**and

**pie charts**come under consideration. Both of them are discussed in detail. Lastly, educator gives information on

**producing charts**. Educator tells that producing charts both bar and pie charts can be easily produced using software packages.