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This Sqadia video demonstrates about Vascular system. The vascular system, also called the circulatory system, is made up of the vessels that carry blood and lymph through the body. If vessels of the vascular system are affected then vascular disorders arise such as arterial disorders. Arteriosclerosis is the thickening and hardening of the walls of the arteries, occurring typically in old age. It is a general term for 3 types of vascular diseases i.e:
- 1. Monckeberg Arteriosclerosis
- 2. Arteriolosclerosis
- 3. Atherosclerosis
All of these are characterized by rigidity and often thickening of blood vessels. Monckeberg Arteriosclerosis is characterized by ring like calcifications. Arteriolosclerosis is characterized by hyaline thickening. It has two alternative forms, one is Hyaline Arteriosclerosis, and the other is Hyperplastic Arteriosclerosis. Atherosclerosis is characterized by fibrous plaques or atheromas. Its incidence increases with age, and is more common in men. The "Response to Injury Theory" now has widespread acceptance among scientific and medical scholars. This theory holds that the earliest event in atherogenesis is injury to the endothelium, which can be triggered by any number of insults, either alone or in combination.
Aneurysm is localized abnormal dilation of arteries or veins. Berry Aneurysm are seen in the smaller arteries of brain and are not present at birth. Syphilitic Aneurysm Is a reflection of tertiary syphilis, and is caused by syphilitic aortitis. Dissecting Aneurysm is a longitudinal intraluminal tear, and characteristically results in aortic rupture. An arteriovenous fistula is an abnormal connection or passageway between an artery and a vein.
Venous Disorders and Vessel tumors
Venous disease is defined as the impairment of blood flow towards your heart after your body has used the oxygen in them. Two types of venous disorders are classified here:
- 1. Venous Thrombosis
- 2. Varicose Veins
Venous thrombosis is seen most often in deep veins of LE. It is often associated with inflammation. Varicose veins is seen most often superficial veins of LE. Beside the disorders, abnormalities lead to tumors. Tumors are classified into benign and malignant tumors. Benign vascular tumors are not true neoplasms but are characterized as malformations. Spider telangiectasia is associated with hyperestrinism. Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia is depicted as dilation and convolution of venules and capillaries of skin and mucosal membranes. Hemangioma is characterized by port-wine stain birth marks. Glomangioma is a small purplish, painful, subungual nodule in a finger or toe. Cystic Hygroma is a cavernous lymphangioma most often in neck or axilla. Malignant vessel tumors are uncommon. Hemangioendothelioma is intermediate in behavior between a benign and malignant tumor. Hemangiopericytoma arises from pericytes and varies from benign to malignant in behaviour. Hemangiosarcoma is Rare malignant vascular tumor occurring in skin, musculoskeletal system, breast and liver. Kaposi Sarcoma is malignant vascular tumor that occurs in several forms i.e Classic, Endemic and Epidemic.
Vasculitis Syndromes are inflammatory and often necrotizing vascular lesions that occur in almost any organ. Usually mediated by immune mechanisms. Poly Arteritis Nodosa affects small/medium sized muscular arteries, typically involving the arteries of the Kidneys and other Internal Organs. Churg Strauss syndrome (CSS) or allergic granulomatosis, is an extremely rare autoimmune condition that causes inflammation of small and medium-sized blood vessels. (vasculitis) in persons with a history of airway allergic hypersensitivity. Hypersensitivity vasculitis is an extreme reaction to a drug, infection, or foreign substance. It leads to inflammation and damage to blood vessels, mainly in the skin. Wegener's granulomatosis is a long-term systemic disorder that involves both granulomatosis and polyangiitis. It most commonly affects the upper respiratory tract and the kidneys. Lymphomatoid Granulomatosis is a rare Epstein-Barr virus–associated systemic angio-destructive lymphoproliferative disease. It is characterized by pulmonary angiitis and granulomatosis. The diagnosis is based on the histological triad. Giant-Cell Arteritis is frequently associated with polymyalgia rheumatica. This mainly affects arteries around the head and neck, and some in the chest. Kawasaki Disease causes inflammation in the walls of medium-sized arteries throughout the body. Signs of Kawasaki disease, such as a high fever and peeling skin, can be frightening. It primarily affects children. Buerger’s Disease usually first shows in hands and feet and may eventually affect larger areas of your arms and legs. Tobacco is the cause of this disease. Quitting all forms of tobacco is the only way to stop Buerger's disease or otherwise amputation is necessary.
Functional Vascular Disorders and Hypertension
Raynaud Disease and Raynaud Phenomenon are two functional vascular disorders. Raynaud Disease is manifested by recurrent vasospasm of small arteries and arterioles with resultant pallor or cyanosis most often in fingers and toes and is most common in young healthy women. Raynaud Phenomenon is similar to Raynaud disease but is always secondary to underlying disorder, most characteristically systemic lupus erythematosus or progressive systemic sclerosis. Hypertension is of 3 types:
- 1. Essential Hypertension
- 2. Secondary Hypertension
- 3. Malignant Hypertension
Essential hypertension is hypertension of unknown etiology, found in majority of cases. It can be determined by both genetic factors and environmental factors. Secondary Hypertension is secondary to known cause. Renal Disease is most common cause of secondary hypertension. Renal Hypertension is caused by Disorders of the renal parenchyma and Unilateral renal artery stenosis. Renal Hypertension Occurs through the stimulation of renin-angiotensin system. Secondary hypertension also include Endocrine disorders such as Primary Aldosteronism or Conn’s Syndrome which is associated with Adrenocortical Adenoma or bilateral adrenal hyperplasia. Acromegaly or Cushing syndrome of Pituitary or adrenocortical origin, pheochromocytoma and hyperthyroididsm. Malignant hypertension is a complication of either essential or secondary hypertension. Results in early death from CHF, CVA or renal failure.